Every year approximately 730,000 Americans have a new or recurrent stroke leaving 160,000 dead and nearly 300,000 with moderate to severe impairments requiring special care (National Stroke Association, 1998). The 4 million stroke survivors in America are cared for at an estimated annual cost of $30 billion. Both humans and other mammals can experience considerable recovery of motor function after surviving a stroke. Neurophysiological studies in human and animal models have repeatedly demonstrated the extensive potential of the adult cerebral cortex for functional and structural plasticity (Nudo, 1999; Jacobs, 1991). Functional imaging and lesion studies suggest that adjacent undamaged cortex and the contralateral hemisphere system assume the functions of the necrotic tissue (Chollet, 1991; Fisher 1992). Recently, the reorganization of motor cortex during recovery from stroke has been documented with fMRI (Cramer, 1997).
This will be the first study to investigate the effects of hypnosis on stroke patients with functional brain imaging.† The research also will be the first to correlate the depth of hypnotic state during experiments with measured outcomes.
Pseudo phase-space plots of filtered heart rate variability (HRV) data for the same subject during baseline and hypnosis conditions. The lag k is 10 data points which corresponds to approximately 1 second. The attractor formed by the hypnosis condition HRV is more clearly defined.
Histogram of Lyapunov exponents calculated from heart rate variability (HRV) data from baseline and hypnosis conditions. The two conditions are clearly separated into different distributions.
Simulated image reconstruction. |
Top Row: Simulated "true" image to be reconstructed; arrangement of sources and detectors; total sensitivity from all source-detector pairs.
Middle Row: Image reconstruction by back projection; back projection normalized by dividing by total sensitivity; and by inversion of the sensitivity functions.
Bottom Row: Spatial errors resulting from the three image reconstruction techniques. The inversion technique has the least error.
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